Mitologia y Religion Olmeca. 2.3 PRACTICAS RITUALES; CULTO A LOS MUERTOS Y OFRENDAS.

II.3.- PRACTICAS RITUALES; CULTO A LOS MUERTOS Y OFRENDAS.

Probablemente para los Olmecas  ya existía una noción sobre vida después de la muerte, y se comenzaba con el sacrificio en ofrenda hacia los dioses. Los primeros sacrificios en ofrenda que se han encontrado son sacrificios ha animales, especialmente perros. "En Tlatilco había la costumbre de sacrificar perros, tal vez con la idea de que acompañen al difunto en el viaje hacia la otra vida".[23]

Luego se encuentran los primeros vestigios de sacrificios y mutilaciones humanas: "En algunos entierros se hallaron casos de sacrificios humanos consistentes en decapitar o cortar partes del cuerpo, tanto de adultos como de niños, para enterrarlas con el cadáver de ciertos personajes".[24]

Si se toma especial atención en lo referente al sacrificio de niños, no se puede obviar que en el altar los quíntuples (La Venta), muy probablemente -a juzgar por las imágenes ahí encontradas- se efectuaron sacrificios ha niños.

A los muertos se les enterraba directamente en la tierra, usualmente con perros, como ya se explico. Pero para los personajes más importantes, como sacerdotes u otros personajes importantes, se les enterraba en tumbas en las cuales se les colocaban, aparte de los sacrificios animales y humanos, figurillas de jade, las cuales servían de ofrenda para que puedan tener una buena vida después de la muerte, tal como la tuvieron en esta vida: "Para los antiguos mexicanos el jade era algo mas que una simple joya; se le elaboraba como símbolo de lo divino y valioso, tal vez por que era del color del agua, del cielo y de la vegetación. El nombre `Chalchichuitl´ [que quiere decir: piedra verde] y el glifo para el jade eran sinónimos de ` joya ´ y de ` precioso ´".[25]

 

Generalmente el jade que se utilizaba para dar de ofrenda en los ritos mortuorios eran pintados con cinabrio rojo, y se colocaba jade con forma de colmillo de jaguar en la boca del difunto. Cuando este era de familia pobre, se le colocaba alguna piedra verde cualquiera. El jade era utilizado básicamente para ofrendas en ritos mortuorios y en ofrendas ha dioses.

 

En La Venta, por las condiciones físico-climáticas casi no se encontraron cuerpos enterrados, pero si muchas ofrendad de figurillas y hachas de jade para dioses, puesto que, como se ha nombrado anteriormente, La Venta era un centro ceremonial (el más importante).

En este tipo de ofrendas la más interesante es la ofrenda 4 de La Venta, descubierta por Drucker... ...Esta ofrenda fue colocada y cubierta durante la fase III, y consiste en un grupo de 16 figurillas y 6 hachas, colocadas de modo que presentan una escena. Las hachas, largas y delgadas, todas de jade, están puestas en fila lado a lado. Las figurillas están también de pie. Una de estas ultimas, típicamente Olmeca, pero de un material desacostumbrado, está situada de espaldas a la hilera de hachas. Las otras 15figurillas, dos de las cuales son de jade y el resto de serpentina, están colocadas en una elipse frente a esta figura central; una fila de cuatro parece marchar pasando revista de norte a sur; las otras once forman un semicírculo en el lado oeste y parecen estar observando.[26]

En este párrafo se explica una ceremonia Olmeca, en donde las figurillas deben representar a sacerdotes, los cuales pueden estar observando a personas que se dirigen al sacrificio, o alo mejor es una fiesta Olmeca. Aun no se puede determinar que es lo que quiere decir exactamente esta escena, pero se rescata la cantidad de figuras netamente Olmecas encontrada, puesto que es la ofrenda de más figurillas y hachas encontrada hasta el momento.

Lo otro que se rescata de esta ofrenda es, que al parecer luego de ser enterrada y tapada fue nuevamente descubierta por los mismos Olmecas, quienes al parecer lo hacían para mantener una cuenta en las ofrenda o para confeccionar un mapa en el cual se pueda ver en donde se encuentran las distintas ofrendas.



[23] Palacios, Mario L. con Cesarman, Halina R.: op. cit. 1965. Pág. 80.

[24] Palacios, Mario L. con Cesarman, Halina R.: op. cit. 1965. Pág. 80.

[25] Palacios, Mario L. con Cesarman, Halina R.: op. cit. 1965. Pág. 81.

[26] Palacios, Mario L. con Cesarman, Halina R.: op. cit. 1965. Pp. 81-82.

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es muy chida la cultura olmeca

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Quién es Druker?

Puedes citar tus fuentes x favor , estoy intersada en el tema.

Me puedes recomendar libros , sobre el tema.

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